Poland was briefly called Maple Valley & Russia Flats when it was first settled around 1800 on land owned by Samuel Wright. The first post office, established in 1838 in the hotel at the corner of Main & Chase Streets, was known as Danielsville, after Nahum Daniels who owned a large amount of land in the village. The first Postmaster, Joseph Benchley soon changed the name because of the confusion with Dansville in western N.Y. The simplest explanation for the name Poland is that is located adjacent to & southwest of Russia, just like Poland in Europe.
In 1869 there were 200 residents & approximately 60 buildings. By the 1880's there was a church, store, hotels, grist and saw mill , tannery sash & blind factory, wagon shop, 2 blacksmith shops, cheese box factory, cabinet shop, & a bootjack & ladder manufacturer & house building was booming. By 1906, there were more than 150 buildings even after 2 disastrous fires.
Poland was incorporated May 10, 1890 with Charles Bowen as the first President (Mayor).